Essay On The Country Of India

This page is about the Republic of India. For other uses, see India (disambiguation).

Republic of India

भारत गणराज्य
Bhārat Gaṇarājya

Motto: "Satyameva Jayate" (Sanskrit)
"Truth Alone Triumphs"

National song
Vande Mataram
"I Bow to Thee, Mother"[a][3]

Area controlled by India shown in dark green;
claimed but uncontrolled regions shown in light green.

CapitalNew Delhi
Largest cityMumbai
18°58′30″N72°49′33″E / 18.97500°N 72.82583°E / 18.97500; 72.82583
Official languagesHindi
English[4][5]
Recognised regional languages
National languageNone[7][8]
Religion79.8% Hinduism
14.2% Islam
2.3% Christianity
1.7% Sikhism
0.7% Buddhism
0.4% Jainism
0.9% others[9][10]
DemonymIndian
GovernmentFederalparliamentary
republic

• President

Ram Nath Kovind

• Vice-President

Venkaiah Naidu

• Prime Minister

Narendra Modi

• Chief Justice

Dipak Misra

• Speaker of the Lower House

Sumitra Mahajan
LegislatureParliament of India

• Upper house

Rajya Sabha

• Lower house

Lok Sabha
Independence from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland

• Dominion

15 August 1947

• Republic

26 January 1950
Area

• Total

3,287,263[11] km2 (1,269,219 sq mi)[b] (7th)

• Water (%)

9.6
Population

• 2016 estimate

1,293,057,000[12] (2nd)

• 2011 census

1,210,854,977[13][14] (2nd)

• Density

395.9/km2 (1,025.4/sq mi) (31st)
GDP (PPP)2016 estimate

• Total

$8.727 trillion[15] (3rd)

• Per capita

$6,664[15] (122nd)
GDP (nominal)2016 estimate

• Total

$2.384 trillion[15] (7th)

• Per capita

$1,820[15] (141st)
Gini (2009)33.9[16]
medium · 79th
HDI (2014) 0.609[17]
medium · 130th
CurrencyIndian rupee (₹) (INR)
Time zoneIST(UTC+05:30)

• Summer (DST)

NA (UTCNA)
DST is not observed
Date formatdd-mm-yyyy
Drives on theleft
Calling code+91
ISO 3166 codeIN
Internet TLD

.in

The Republic of India (Hindi: भारत गणराज्य) is a country in Asia. It is at the center of South Asia. India has more than 1.2 billion (1,210,000,000) people, which is the second largest population in the world.[19] It is the seventh largest country in the world by area and the largest country in South Asia. It is also the most populous democracy in the world.[20][21][22]

India has seven neighbours: Pakistan in the north-west, China and Nepal in the north, Bhutan and Bangladesh in the north-east, Myanmar in the east and Sri Lanka, an island, in the south.

The capital of India is New Delhi. India is a peninsula, bound by the Indian Ocean in the south, the Arabian Sea on the west and Bay of Bengal in the east. The coastline of India is of about 7,517 km (4,671 mi) long.[23] India has the third largest military force in the world and is also a nuclear weapon state.[24]

India's economy became the world's fastest growing in the G20 developing nations in the last quarter of 2014, replacing the People's Republic of China.[25] India's literacy and wealth are also rising.[26] According to New World Wealth, India is the seventh richest country in the world with a total individual wealth of $5.6 trillion.[27][28] However, it still has many social and economic issues like poverty and corruption. India is a founding member of the World Trade Organisation (WTO), and has signed the Kyoto Protocol.

India has the fourth largest number of spoken languages per country in the world, only behind Papua New Guinea, Indonesia, and Nigeria.[29] People of many different religions live there, including the five most popular world religions: Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, and Sikhism. The latter three religions came from the Indian subcontinent along with Jainism.

National Symbols of India[change | change source]

The National emblem of India shows four lions standing back-to-back. The lions symbolise power, pride, confidence, and courage (bravery). Only the government can use this emblem, according to the State Emblem of India (Prohibition of Improper Use) Act, 2005

The name India comes from the Greek word, Indus, ultimately derived from the word sindhu, which in time turned into Hind or Hindi or Hindu. The preferred native name or endonym is "Bharat" in Hindi and other Indian languages as contrasted with names from outsiders.

History[change | change source]

Main article: History of India

Two of the main Classical languages of the world— Sanskrit and Tamil, were born in India. Both of these languages are more than 3000 years old. The country founded a religion called Hinduism, which most Indians still follow. Later, a king called Chandragupt Maurya built an empire called the Maurya Empire in 300 BC. It made most of South Asia into one whole country.[31] From 180 BC, many other countries invaded India. Even later (100 BC  — AD 1100), other Indian dynasties (empires) came, including the Chalukyas, Cholas, Pallavas, and Pandyas.[32] Southern India at that time was famous for its science, art, and writing. The Cholas of Thanjavur were pioneers at war in the seas and invaded Malaya, Borneo, Cambodia. The influence of Cholas are still well noticeable in SE Asia.[33]

Many dynasties ruled India around the year 1000. Some of these were the Mughal, Vijayanagara, and the Maratha empires. In the 1600s, European countries invaded India, and the British controlled most of India by 1856.[34]

In the early 1900s, millions of people peacefully started to protest against British control. One of the people who were leading the freedom movement was Mahatma Gandhi, who only used peaceful tactics, including a way called "ahimsa", which means "non-violence".[35] On 15 August 1947, India peacefully became free and independent from the British Empire. India's constitution was founded on 26 January 1950. Every year, on this day, Indians celebrate Republic Day. The first official leader (Prime Minister) of India was Jawaharlal Nehru.

After 1947, India has had a socialist planned economy. It is one of the founding members of the Non-Aligned Movement and the United Nations. It has fought many wars since independence from Britain, including in 1947-48, 1965, 1971, and 1999 with Pakistan and in 1962 with China. It also fought a war to capture Goa, a Portuguese-built port and city which was not a part of India until 1961. The Portuguese refused to give it to the country, and so India had to use force and the Portuguese were defeated. India has also done nuclear tests in 1974 and 1998, and it is one of the few countries that has nuclear bombs.[36] Since 1991, India has been one of the fastest-growing economies in the world.[37]

Government[change | change source]

India is the largest democracy in the world.[22]

India's government is divided into three parts: the Legislative (the one that makes the laws, the Parliament), the Executive (the government), and the Judiciary (the one that makes sure that the laws are obeyed, the supreme court).

The legislative branch is made up of the Parliament of India, which is in New Delhi, the capital of India. The Parliament of India is divided into two groups: the upper house, Rajya Sabha (Council of States); and the lower house, Lok Sabha (House of People). The Rajya Sabha has 250 members,[38] and the Lok Sabha has 552 members.[38]

The executive branch is made up of the President, Vice President, Prime Minister, and the Council of Ministers. The President of India is elected for five years. The President can choose the Prime Minister, who has most of the power. The Council of Ministers, such as the Minister of Defence, help the Prime Minister. Narendra Modi became the Prime Minister of India on May 16, 2014. He is the 19th Prime Minister of India.

The judicial branch is made up of the courts of India, including the Supreme Court. The Chief Justice of India is the head of the Supreme Court. Supreme Court members have the power to stop a law being passed by Parliament if they think that the law is illegal and contradicts (opposes) the Constitution of India.[39] In India, there are also 24 High Courts.

Geography and climate[change | change source]

India is the seventh largest country in the world. It is the main part of the Indian subcontinent. The countries next to India are Pakistan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, China, Bhutan, and Nepal. It is also near Sri Lanka, an island country.

India is a peninsula, which means that it is surrounded on three sides by water. One of the seven wonders of the world is in Agra: the Taj Mahal. In the west is the Arabian Sea, in the south is the Indian Ocean, and in the east is the Bay of Bengal. The northern part of India has many mountains. The most famous mountain range in India is the Himalayas, which have some of the tallest mountains in the world. There are many rivers in India. The main rivers are the Ganges, the Brahmaputra, the Yamuna, the Godavari, the Kaveri, the Narmada, and the Krishna.

India has different climates.[40] In the South, the climate is mainly tropical, which means it can get very hot in summer and cool in winter.[40] The northern part, though, has a cooler climate, called sub-tropical, and even alpine in mountainous regions.[40] The Himalayas, in the alpine climate region, can get extremely cold. There is very heavy rainfall along the west coast and in the Eastern Himalayan foothills. The west, though, is drier. Because of some of the deserts of India, all of India gets rain for four months of the year. That time is called the monsoon. That is because the deserts attract water-filled winds from the Indian Ocean, which give rain when they come into India. When the monsoon rains come late or not so heavily, droughts (when the land dries out because there is less rain) are possible.

Defence[change | change source]

Main article: Indian Armed Forces

The Indian Armed Forces is the military of India. It is made up of an Army, Navy and Air Force. There are other parts like Paramilitary and Strategic Nuclear Command.

The President of India is its Commander-in-Chief. However, it is managed by the Ministry of Defence. In 2010, the Indian Armed Forces had 1.32 million active personnel. This makes it one of the largest militaries in the world.[41]

Currently, the Indian Army is becoming more modern by buying and making new weapons. It is also building defences against missiles of other countries.[42] In 2011, India imported more weapons than any other nation in the world.[43]

From its independence in 1947, India fought four wars with Pakistan and one war with China.

Indian states[change | change source]

For administration purposes, India has been divided into smaller pieces. Most of these pieces are called states, some are called union territories. States and union territories are different in the way they are represented. Most union territories are ruled by administrators sent by the central government. All the states, and the territories of Delhi, and Puducherry elect their local government themselves. In total, there are twenty-nine states, and seven union territories.[44]

States:

Union territories:

Union territoryCapital
Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPort Blair
ChandigarhChandigarh
Dadra and Nagar HaveliSilvassa
Daman and DiuDaman
DelhiDelhi
LakshadweepKavaratti
PuducherryPuducherry

Trouble with the borders[change | change source]

There are disputes about certain parts of the Indian borders. Countries do not agree on where the borders are.[45]Pakistan and China do not recognise the disputed territory of Jammu and Kashmir.[46] The Indian government claims it as an Indian state.[46] Similarly, the Republic of India does not recognise the Pakistani and Chinese parts of Kashmir.[46]

In 1914, British India and Tibet agreed on the McMahon Line, as part of the Simla Accord.[47] In July 1914, China withdrew from the agreement.[47] Indians and Tibetans see this line as the official border. China does not agree, and both mainland China and Taiwan do not recognize that Arunachal Pradesh belongs to India. According to them, it is a part of South Tibet, which belongs to China.[48][49]

Economy[change | change source]

Main article: Economy of India

The economy of the country is among the world's fastest growing. It is the 7th largest in the world with a nominal GDP of $2,250 billion (USD), and in terms of PPP, the economy is 3rd largest (worth $8,720 trillion USD).[50] The growth rate is 8.25% for fiscal 2010. However, that is still $3678 (considering PPP) per person per year. India's economy is based mainly on:

India's economy is diverse. Major industries include automobiles, cement, chemicals, consumer electronics, food processing, machinery, mining, petroleum, pharmaceuticals, steel, transportation equipment, and textiles.[51]

However, despite economic growth, India continues to suffer from poverty. 27.5% of the population was living in poverty in 2004–2005.[52] In addition, 80.4% of the population live on less than USD $2 a day,[53] which was lowered to 68% by 2009.[54]

People[change | change source]

There are 1.12 billion people living in India.[55] India is the second largest country by the number of people living in it, with China being the first. Experts think that by the year 2030, India will be the first.[56] About 70% of Indians live in rural areas, or land set aside for farming.[57] The largest cities in India are Mumbai, Kolkata, Delhi, Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad, and Ahmedabad.[44] India has 23 official languages.[58] Altogether, 1,625 languages are spoken in India.[39]

Languages[change | change source]

There are many different languages and cultures in India. The only geographical place with more different languages and cultures is the African continent.[44] There are two main language families in India, the Indo-Aryan and the Dravidian languages. About 69% of Indians speak an Indo-Arayan language, about 26% speak a Dravidian language. Other languages spoken in India come from the Austro-Asiatic group. Around 5% of the people speak a Tibeto-Burman language.

Hindi is the official language in India with the largest number of speakers.[59] It is the official language of the union.[60] Native speakers of Hindi represent about 41% of the Indian population (2001 Indian census). English is also used, mostly for business and in the administration. It has the status of a 'subsidiary official language'.[61] The constitution also recognises 21 other languages. Either many people speak those languages, or they have been recognised to be very important for Indian culture. The number of dialects in India is as high as 1,652.[39]

In the south of India, many people speak Kannada, Telugu, Tamil and Malayalam. In the north, many people speak Chhattisgarhi, Punjabi, Bengali, Gujarati, and Marathi, Oriya, and Bihari.[62][63]

India has 23 official languages. Its constitution lists the name of the country in each of the languages.[64]Hindi and English (listed in boldface) are the "official languages of the union" (Union meaning the Federal Government in Delhi);[65]Tamil,Sanskrit, Telugu, Kannada, Malayalam, and Odia are officially the "classical languages of India."

LanguageLong formEnglish PronunciationShort form
Assameseভাৰত গণৰাজ্যBhārôt Gôṇôrājÿôভাৰত Bharot
Bengaliভারত গণরাজ্যBʰārôt Gôṇôrājÿôভারত Bharot
Bodo
Dogri
English[51]Republic of IndiaIndia
Gujaratiભારતીય પ્રજાસત્તાકBhartiya Prajasattakભારત.
Hindiभारत गणराज्यBhārata Gaṇarājyaभारत Bhārat
Kannadaಭಾರತ ಗಣರಾಜ್ಯBhārata Gaṇarājyaಭಾರತ Bhārata
KashmiriہِندوستانHindustān
Konkaniभारोत गोणराजभारोत
Maithili
MalayalamഭാരതംBhāratamഭാരതം Bhāratam
Manipuri (also Meitei or Meithei)ভারত গণরাজ্যভারত
Marathiभारतीय प्रजासत्ताकBhartiya Prajasattakभारत Bhārat
Nepaliभारत गणराज्यBʰārat Gaṇarādzyaभारत Bʰārat
OriyaଭାରତBharataBharata
Punjabiਭਾਰਤ ਗਣਤੰਤਰBhārat Gantantarਭਾਰਤ Bhārat
Sanskritभारत गणराज्यम्Bhārata Gaṇarājyamभारत Bhārata
Santhali
Sindhiڀارت، هندستانڀارت،ڀارت،
Tamilஇந்தியக் குடியரசுIndiyak-Kudiyarasuஇந்தியா India/Bharadham
Teluguభారత గణరాజ్యముBʰārata Gaṇa Rājyamuభారత్ Bhārath
Urduجمہوریہ بھارتJumhūrīyat-e Bhāratبھارت Bhārat

Culture[change | change source]

Cave paintings from the Stone Age are found across India. They show dances and rituals and suggest there was a prehistoric religion. During the Epic and Puranic periods, the earliest versions of the epic poems Ramayana and Mahabharata were written from about 500–100 BCE,[67] although these were orallytransmitted for centuries before this period.[68] Other South Asian Stone Age sites apart from Pakistan are in modern India, such as the Bhimbetka rock shelters in central Madhya Pradesh and the Kupgal petroglyphs of eastern Karnataka, contain rock art showing religious rites and evidence of possible ritualised music.[69]

Several modern religions are linked to India,[70] namely modern Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism and Sikhism. All of these religions have different schools (ways of thinking) and traditions that are related. As a group they are called the Eastern religions. The Indian religions are similar to one another in many ways: The basic beliefs, the way worship is done and several religious practices are very similar. These similarities mainly come from the fact that these religions have a common history and common origins. They also influenced each other.

The religion of Hinduism is the main faith followed by 79.80% of people in the Republic of India; Islam – 14.23%; Christianity – 2.30%; Sikhism – 1.72%; Buddhism – 0.70% and Jainism – 0.37%.[71]

It's the first time ever since independence that Hindu population percentage fell below 80%.

Technology[change | change source]

India sent a spacecraft to Mars for the first time in 2014. That made it the fourth country and only Asian country to do so. India is the only country to be successful in its very first attempt to orbit Mars. It was called the Mars Orbiter Mission.

ISRO launched 104 satellites in a single mission to create world record. India became the first nation in the world to have launched over a hundred satellites in one mission. That was more than the 2014 Russian record of 37 satellites in a single launch.

Pop culture[change | change source]

India has the largest movie industry in the world.[source?][72] Based in Mumbai (formerly Bombay), the industry is also known as Bollywood . It makes 1,000 movies a year, about twice as many as Hollywood.[73]

Sports[change | change source]

Main article: Sports in India

There is no national game in India.[74] Indians have excelled in Hockey. They have also won eight gold, one silver and two bronze medals at the Olympic games. However, cricket is the most popular sport in India. The Indian cricket team won the 1983 and 2011 Cricket World Cup and the 2007 ICC World Twenty20. They shared the 2002 ICC Champions Trophy with Sri Lanka and won the 2013 ICC Champions Trophy.Cricket in India is controlled by the Board of Control for Cricket in India or BCCI. Domestic tournaments are the Ranji Trophy, the Duleep Trophy, the Deodhar Trophy, the Irani Trophy and the Challenger Series. There is also the Indian cricket league and Indian premier league Twenty20 competitions.

Tennis has become popular due to the victories of the India Davis Cup team. Association football is also a popular sport in northeast India, West Bengal, Goa and Kerala.[75] The Indian national football team has won the South Asian Football Federation Cup many times. Chess, which comes from India, is also becoming popular. This is with the increase in the number of Indian Grandmasters.[76] Traditional sports include kabaddi, kho kho, and gilli-danda, which are played throughout India.

Notes[change | change source]

  1. ↑"[...] Jana Gana Mana is the National Anthem of India, subject to such alterations in the words as the Government may authorise as occasion arises; and the song Vande Mataram
The Taj Mahal in Agra was built by Shah Jahan as a memorial to his wife Mumtaz Mahal. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. It is thought to be of "outstanding universal value".[30]
The Harmandir Sahib or The Golden Temple of the Sikhs.
A 2008 Indian Premier League Twenty20 cricket match being played between the Chennai Super Kings and Kolkata Knight Riders

Example of a Research Paper essay on Countries about:

India / geography / culture / political parties / government

Essay Topic:

India as one of the countries playing an important role in the development of the world’s culture and economy.

Essay Questions:

Why is India considered to be an important part in the development of the world’s culture and economy? How does India’s location and climate influence its economical potential? How is India’s social structure different from the ordinary social structure?

Thesis Statement:

The Republic of India is also rather interesting in terms of its geography, government structure, political parties and social stratification.

 

India Essay

 

Table of contents:

1. Introduction

2. Geography

3. Political culture

4. Society and political parties

5. Government

6. Current issues

Introduction. India is one of the countries that play a rather important part in the development of the world’s culture and economy in some spheres. India is also one of the most beautiful countries of the planet. Its culture and traditions can fairly be called the richest and the most authentic. Unfortunately, concerning the economical impact India makes into the world’s economy it must be mentioned that India is not very developed and it regarded as a developing and not a developed country. Nevertheless, the “developing” title did not influence the cultural peculiarities of India. India is not similar to any Asian country not mentioning the European countries because it is very individual. This is primarily due to the fact that India consists of 28 states and each state has its own state language, religion and ethnic pattern [1]. India is basically a constellation of religions, as it is the place where almost every world’s religion is represented. The Republic of India is also rather interesting in terms of its geography, government structure, political parties and social stratification.

2.Geography

The Republic of India is situated in South Asia. It is known as the seventh largest country in the world. The Indian subcontinent is predominantly occupied by India itself. The Indian subcontinent in its turn is situated on the Indian Plate. The Deccan plateau makes up a large part of the southern Indian Peninsula. Some of India’s states are in the Himalayan Mountain Range and the majority posses a sufficiently fertile soul for agriculture as are situated in the Indo-Gangetic plain. The waters of the Indian Ocean wash the Republic of India. In addition to the part of India situated on the peninsula, it has islands - Sri Lanka, Maldives and Indonesia. Basically, the country also has three archipelagos. The first is Sunderbans, situated in the Gangetic delta in the West Bengal, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands in the southeast and Lakshadweep in the southwest coast. India borders with several countries and a desert on its west. This desert is known as a Thar Desert in the southeast of Pakistan. India also borders with Afghanistan, China, Nepal, Bhutan in the north-east, Bangladesh and Myanmar in the east (1). The territory on which India borders with China is the longest as it goes along the Himalayan Mountain Range. The maximum length of the mainland part of the country is 3200 kilometers from the north to the south and 2700 kilometers from west to east. India’s coastline is around 7000 kilometers. There are several main rivers on the territory of the Indian Republic, such as – Krishna, Narmada, Kaveri, Godavari, Yamuna, Brahmaputra and Ganga.

The climate in India varies depending on the part of the country. It is tropical in the south and temperate in the north, due to the Himalayan Mountains. Another factor, which does have a strong, influence over India’s climate besides the Himalayas is the Thar Desert of Pakistan. The true reason the Himalayas are so important for India’s climate is because along with the Hindu Kush mountains they convert into a barrier that prevent the cold Central Asian winds from passing to the territory of the Republic of India. For the same reason India is a “warm” country. Basically India’s location on the continent is favorable for agriculture and for attracting guests in spite of the hot temperature of the country.

3. Political culture

One of the most important aspects required for understanding the contemporary life of the Republic of India is the history of the country. The first human life on the territory of India was found over 9000 years ago. Since then India has always lived out a unique way of life that was not influenced by outside factors. Nothing changed till the invasions of the tenth and the twelfth century conducted by different parts of Central Asia. It was these invasions that made the territory of the future Republic of India stretch greatly over the Indian subcontinent. India’s life in the sixteenth century was marked with the beginning of the trade with United Kingdom, France, Portugal and Netherlands and the appearance of the first colonies that brought European tendencies to India. As the matter of fact the second half of the nineteenth century the majority of the country was under the control of the British Empire(1). These events made the nation strive for independence and strongly fight for it. The First War of Indian Independence did not succeed, but the beginning of the twentieth century was the start of the greatest struggle for independence India has ever known with Mahatma Gandhi as a head. On August 15th, 1947 India became independent from the British Crown and by the 1950 it became the Republic of India with its own newly applied constitution. Nowadays India tries to keep its democracy on the highest level of development.

It is common knowledge that India is the country with the second biggest population in the world. Its population is estimated as one billion people in 2006 (1). This huge population is rather diverse but there are three main things that united the whole nations. They are: language, religion and of course the caste. The language is highly respected by the citizens of the Republic of India and its traditions are kept with strict discipline. The native languages of India are Sanskrit and Tamil. The languages of the population of India are mainly within the Indo-Aryan language family and the Dravidian language family. There are also a great number of dialects, depending on the state, or a part of a state in India. The first one is the most spoken on the territory of the Republic of India and is represented by 74% of the population. Nevertheless, many other languages are also freely spoken in the country, as the constitution mentions twenty-three languages recognized as official ones (3.63). The government of India uses two languages to construct official documents – Hindi and English. Religion means a lot for the population of India. India has the representatives of many religions: the Hindus, Muslims, Sikhs, Christians, Buddhists, Jains, Jews, Zoroastrians, Ahmadis and representatives of other religions (2.33). Over eighty percent of the population is Hindu, but nevertheless the left twenty percent is 20 million people with diverse religions views. Religion is the integral part of the society of the Republic of India. Belonging to a definite religion in India implies absolute belief into spiritual doctrines and following the rules. It also is vital to understand the importance of the caste for the social and political life of the country, both social stratification and political orientation is chosen according to the caste.

The society of India highly values education and it is obtained according to the socio-economic status of the family. The problem of the Republic of India is the gap between highly educated people with European and American education and people who are not educated at all. The level of education for a person sometimes is still determined on the bases of the sex of the child, therefore many women in India are not educated. The rate of literacy of the country is 64,4%, which is made by 75,6% of males and 54,2% of females. Among the most educated states of India, Kerala occupies the first place with its 94% of literacy rate.

India is recognized as the second fastest growing economy. In spite of this positive tendency India, being a developing country has an extremely uneven wealth distribution system, where ten percent of the population gains thirty three percent of the whole income of the country. The per capita income (PPP) of the Republic of India is 3,400 United States dollars. It is believed to be the one hundred twenty-second in the world. The GDP is 3,63 trillion of United States dollars. It also occupies the fourth position as to the purchasing power parity of the country. The republic also has a growing economy which is proved by the GDP rate of growth of 9,1% according to the first quarter of the year 2006.

The external trading process is of a vital importance for the country. The country exports fabrics, clothes, jewelry, and precious stones, agricultural and provision products, cars, medicaments, software, technological services and other products. India produces 33% of the world’s amount of tea. India considers the United States of America, The United Kingdom, China, The United Arab Emirates, Belgium, Hong, Kong and Switzerland to be major exporting-trading partners.

496,4 million people make up the labor force of the Republic of India(5.35). The distribution of this, labor force is different and consists of the next sectors:

1. Agriculture -has 60% of the India’s labor force;

2. Mainstream industry - has 17% of the India’s labor force;

3. Service industries - has 23% of the India’s labor force.

Agriculture is the dominant labor supplier as the country produces potatoes, sugarcane, tea, jute, cotton, oilseed, wheat, and rice. The industry is oriented on machinery, petroleum, mining, cement, transportation equipment, steel, food processing, chemicals and the textile industry (6.22).

As for the government it has an immense control over the private sector due to the debates around the privatization process, the foreign trade and over foreign direct investment.

4. Society and political parties

The society is oriented on democracy and that is the reason the country offers a wide range of political parties with different goals and ways of their realization. Basically, India has a multi-party political system, which is realized through a large amount of regional parties. Regional parties are often very small; nevertheless there is a list of national parties of the Republic. A party is considered to be a national one in case it is elected by at least four states. As India consists of 28 states it is possible to image the possible amount of political parties in India (4.76). After the elections are held out the election results are reviewed and the Election Commission of India gives the party either the status of the national or a regional party. The party cannot be considered official unless it is approved by the decision of the Election Commission. The status of a national party gives certain privileges to the party such as: choosing the party symbol and other identities. In other words there is two kinds of political parties in India: national parties and regional (state) parties. The more influential the party is the more opportunities it has to become a national one. It is possible to identify six of the most influential national parties approved by the Election Commission of the Republic of India: the Communist Party of India, Bahujan Samaj Party, the Communist Party of India (Marxist), Bharatiya Janata Party, the Indian National Congress and the Nationalist Congress Party.

5. Government

As it has been mentioned before the Republic of India has a democratic orientation. It is considered to be the second largest democracy in the world for the reason of having the second largest population and therefore electing population in the world. The Republic of India has a bicameral parliament consisting of Rajya Sabha (Council of States) and Lok Sabha (House of People) and a federal form of government. Rajya Sabha has 245 members being the upper house and Lok Sabha has 545 being the lower house of Parliament. The head of the country is the President, but his power is limited by the Parliament, as he has no real executive power. The President is elected every five years and this process is indirect as the Electoral College approves the candidate. The President gets the command over India’s Armed Forces. The country has three main branches that conduct the control over the whole process of government functioning: the legislative, executive and judiciary powers. As the role of the President is more of a nominal character the Prime Minister is the real head of the government of the Republic of India.

6.Current issues

As one of India’s greatest concerns has always been the maintenance of its unity, several issues has severely influenced the country. This primarily deals with the territorial disputes that India with China, Kargil and especially Pakistan. In addition to that the India’s nuclear tests are still fresh in memory, making the conflict even more severe. India and Pakistan cannot truly find a common language as the territory Pakistan claims is there is an area of high economical interest for India. This is the reason the governments of India and Pakistan constantly try to achieve a consensus in order to keep peace in the countries. India is not holding an aggressive position, but nevertheless being a member of the United Nations makes it a strong opponent in terms of the world’s economy.

Conclusion. India, owing to the proper functioning of the government, correct politics and ethnical peculiarities make one of the most interesting nations all over the world. With is highly growing economical rates and its huge population India converts into on the potentially strongest countries, especially in terms of Armed Forces. India is a big country and fits a lot of diverse things: religions, political parties, languages, castes and others. This makes India a country of contrasts where you can find either an educated wealth man or a person that cannot even read and is starving. The Republic of India keeps revealing all its economic, political and cultural potential, which lead the country to the group of the most influential countries on the planet.India’s economic-geographic position gives it certain advantages the country is successfully using and getting profit from it. The country is perfecting the trading and economic skills; therefore it will continue to be converting from a developing to a developed country.

 

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