This article is about the metaphysical term "heaven" and the astral dimension it denotes. For other uses, see Heaven (disambiguation).
Heaven, or the heavens, is a common religious, cosmological, or transcendent place where beings such as gods, angels, jinn, saints, or venerated ancestors are said to originate, be enthroned, or live. According to the beliefs of some religions, heavenly beings can descend to earth or incarnate, and earthly beings can ascend to Heaven in the afterlife, or in exceptional cases enter Heaven alive.
Heaven is often described as a "higher place", the holiest place, a Paradise, in contrast to Hell or the Underworld or the "low places", and universally or conditionally accessible by earthly beings according to various standards of divinity, goodness, piety, faith, or other virtues or right beliefs or simply the will of God. Some believe in the possibility of a Heaven on Earth in a World to Come.
Another belief is in an axis mundi or world tree which connects the heavens, the terrestrial world, and the underworld. In Indian religions, Heaven is considered as Svarga loka, and the soul is again subjected to rebirth in different living forms according to its karma. This cycle can be broken after a soul achieves Moksha or Nirvana. Any place of existence, either of humans, souls or deities, outside the tangible world (Heaven, Hell, or other) is referred to as otherworld.
The modern English word heaven is derived from the earlier (Middle English) heven (attested 1159); this in turn was developed from the previous Old English form heofon. By about 1000, heofon was being used in reference to the Christianized "place where God dwells", but originally, it had signified "sky, firmament" (e.g. in Beowulf, c. 725). The English term has cognates in the other Germanic languages: Old Saxonheƀan "sky, heaven", Middle Low Germanheven "sky", Old Icelandichiminn "sky, heaven", Gothichimins; and those with a variant final -l: Old Frisianhimel, himul "sky, heaven", Old Saxon/Old High Germanhimil, Old Saxon/Middle Low Germanhemmel, Dutchhemel, and modern GermanHimmel. All of these have been derived from a reconstructedProto-Germanic form *Hemina-.
See also: Category:Conceptions of heaven
Ancient Near East religions
See also: Religions of the ancient Near East
Main article: Ancient Mesopotamian religion
The ancient Mesopotamians regarded the sky as a series of domes (usually three, but sometimes seven) covering the flat earth.:180 Each dome was made of a different kind of precious stone.:203 The lowest dome of heaven was made of jasper and was the home of the stars. The middle dome of heaven was made of saggilmut stone and was the abode of the Igigi. The highest and outermost dome of heaven was made of luludānītu stone and was personified as An, the god of the sky. The celestial bodies were equated with specific deities as well.:203 The planet Venus was believed to be Inanna, the goddess of love, sex, and war.:108–109:203 The sun was her brother Utu, the god of justice,:203 and the moon was their father Nanna.:203
Ordinary mortals could not go to heaven because it was the abode of the gods alone. Instead, after a person died, his or her soul went to Kur (later known as Irkalla), a dark shadowy underworld, located deep below the surface of the earth. All souls went to the same afterlife, and a person's actions during life had no impact on how he would be treated in the world to come. Nonetheless, funerary evidence indicates that some people believed that Inanna had the power to bestow special favors upon her devotees in the afterlife.
Main article: Aaru
In Ancient Egyptian religion, belief in an afterlife is much more stressed than in ancient Judaism. Heaven was a physical place far above the Earth in a "dark area" of space where there were no stars, basically beyond the Universe. According to the Book of the Dead, departed souls would undergo a literal journey to reach Heaven, along the way to which there could exist hazards and other entities attempting to deny the reaching of Heaven. Their heart would finally be weighed with the feather of truth, and if the sins weighed it down their heart was devoured.
Canaanite and Phoenician views of Heaven
Main article: Canaanite religion
Almost nothing is known of Bronze Age (pre-1200 BC) Canaanite views of Heaven, and the archaeological findings at Ugarit (destroyed c. 1200 BC) have not provided information. The 1st century Greek author Philo of Byblos may preserve elements of Iron AgePhoenician religion in his Sanchuniathon.
Hurrian and Hittite myths
Further information: Hittite mythology
In the Middle Hittite myths, Heaven is the abode of the gods. In the Song of Kumarbi, Alalu was king in Heaven for nine years before giving birth to his son, Anu. Anu was himself overthrown by his son, Kumarbi.
Main article: Bahá'í Faith
The Bahá'í Faith regards the conventional description of Heaven (and hell) as a specific place as symbolic. The Bahá'í writings describe Heaven as a "spiritual condition" where closeness to God is defined as Heaven; conversely Hell is seen as a state of remoteness from God. Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Bahá'í Faith, has stated that the nature of the life of the soul in the afterlife is beyond comprehension in the physical plane, but has stated that the soul will retain its consciousness and individuality and remember its physical life; the soul will be able to recognize other souls and communicate with them.
For Bahá'ís, entry into the next life has the potential to bring great joy. Bahá'u'lláh likened death to the process of birth. He explains: "The world beyond is as different from this world as this world is different from that of the child while still in the womb of its mother." The analogy to the womb in many ways summarizes the Bahá'í view of earthly existence: just as the womb constitutes an important place for a person's initial physical development, the physical world provides for the development of the individual soul. Accordingly, Bahá'ís view life as a preparatory stage, where one can develop and perfect those qualities which will be needed in the next life. The key to spiritual progress is to follow the path outlined by the current Manifestation of God, which Bahá'ís believe is currently Bahá'u'lláh. Bahá'u'lláh wrote, "Know thou, of a truth, that if the soul of man hath walked in the ways of God, it will, assuredly return and be gathered to the glory of the Beloved."
The Bahá'í teachings state that there exists a hierarchy of souls in the afterlife, where the merits of each soul determines their place in the hierarchy, and that souls lower in the hierarchy cannot completely understand the station of those above. Each soul can continue to progress in the afterlife, but the soul's development is not entirely dependent on its own conscious efforts, the nature of which we are not aware, but also augmented by the grace of God, the prayers of others, and good deeds performed by others on Earth in the name of that person.
Main article: Buddhist cosmology
In Buddhism there are several Heavens, all of which are still part of samsara (illusionary reality). Those who accumulate good karma may be reborn in one of them. However, their stay in Heaven is not eternal—eventually they will use up their good karma and will undergo rebirth into another realm, as a human, animal or other being. Because Heaven is temporary and part of samsara, Buddhists focus more on escaping the cycle of rebirth and reaching enlightenment (nirvana). Nirvana is not a heaven but a mental state.
According to Buddhist cosmology the universe is impermanent and beings transmigrate through a number of existential "planes" in which this human world is only one "realm" or "path". These are traditionally envisioned as a vertical continuum with the Heavens existing above the human realm, and the realms of the animals, hungry ghosts and hell beings existing beneath it. According to Jan Chozen Bays in her book, Jizo: Guardian of Children, Travelers, and Other Voyagers, the realm of the asura is a later refinement of the heavenly realm and was inserted between the human realm and the Heavens. One important Buddhist Heaven is the Trāyastriṃśa, which resembles Olympus of Greek mythology.
In the Mahayana world view, there are also pure lands which lie outside this continuum and are created by the Buddhas upon attaining enlightenment. Rebirth in the pure land of Amitabha is seen as an assurance of Buddhahood, for once reborn there, beings do not fall back into cyclical existence unless they choose to do so to save other beings, the goal of Buddhism being the obtainment of enlightenment and freeing oneself and others from the birth–death cycle.
One of the Buddhist sutras states that a hundred years of our existence is equal to one day and one night in the world of the thirty-three gods. Thirty such days add up to their one month. Twelve such months become their one-year, while they live for a thousand such years though existence in the heavens is ultimately finite and the beings who reside there will reappear in other realms based on their karma.
The Tibetan word Bardo means literally "intermediate state". In Sanskrit the concept has the name antarabhāva.
According to Anguttara Nikaya
Here the denizens are Brahmās, and the ruler is Mahābrahmā
After developing the four Brahmavihāras, King Makhādeva rebirths here after death. The monk Tissa and Brāhmana Jānussoni were also reborn here.
For a monk, the next best thing to Nirvana is to be reborn in this Brahmāloka.
The lifespan of a Brahmās is not stated but is not eternal.
The lifespan of a Kāmāvacara is not stated but is not eternal.
Here some denizens are kings that came from human lives as being kings.
The Anguttara Nikaya says that on the 15th day, the Cātummaharaja gods look down to earth and see if the humans are still paying reverence to mother, father, samanas and brahmanas.
Bimbisāra (the king of Magadha), and Pāyāsi (the king of Kosāla) were reborn here.
The denizens here have a lifespan of 9,216,000,000 years.
The denizens here have a lifespan of 2,284,000,000 years.
The denizens here have a lifespan of 9,216,000,000 years.
The ruler of this Heaven is Indra or Shakra, and the realm is also called Trayatrimia.
Each denizen addresses other denizens as the title "mārisa".
The governing hall of this Heaven is called Sudhamma Hall.
This Heaven has a garden Nandanavana with damsels, as its most magnificent sight.
Ajita the Licchavi army general was reborn here. Gopika the Sākyan girl was reborn as a male god in this realm.
Any Buddhist reborn in this realm can outshine any of the previously dwelling denizens because of the extra merit acquired for following the Buddha's teachings.
The denizens here have a lifespan of 36,000,000 years.
Anāthapindika, a Kosālan householder and benefactor to the Buddha's order was reborn here.
The denizens here have a lifespan of 576,000,000 years.
The denizens here have a lifespan of 1,444,000,000 years.
There are 5 major types of Heavens.
- Akanishtha or Ghanavyiiha
This is the most supreme Heaven wherein beings that have achieved Nirvana live for eternity.
- Heaven of the Jinas
- Heavens of Formless Spirits
These are 4 in number.
These are 16 in number, and are free from sensuality.
These are 6 in number, and contain sensuality.
Main article: Tian
In the native ChineseConfucian traditions, Heaven (Tian) is an important concept, where the ancestors reside and from which emperors drew their mandate to rule in their dynastic propaganda, for example.
Heaven is a key concept in Chinese mythology, philosophies and religions, and is on one end of the spectrum a synonym of Shangdi ("Supreme Deity") and on the other naturalistic end, a synonym for nature and the sky. The Chinese term for "Heaven", Tian (天), derives from the name of the supreme deity of the Zhou Dynasty. After their conquest of the Shang Dynasty in 1122 BC, the Zhou people considered their supreme deity Tian to be identical with the Shang supreme deity Shangdi. The Zhou people attributed Heaven with anthropomorphic attributes, evidenced in the etymology of the Chinese character for Heaven or sky, which originally depicted a person with a large cranium. Heaven is said to see, hear and watch over all men. Heaven is affected by man's doings, and having personality, is happy and angry with them. Heaven blesses those who please it and sends calamities upon those who offend it. Heaven was also believed to transcend all other spirits and gods, with Confucius asserting, "He who offends against Heaven has none to whom he can pray."
Other philosophers born around the time of Confucius such as Mozi took an even more theistic view of Heaven, believing that Heaven is the divine ruler, just as the Son of Heaven (the King of Zhou) is the earthly ruler. Mozi believed that spirits and minor gods exist, but their function is merely to carry out the will of Heaven, watching for evil-doers and punishing them. Thus they function as angels of Heaven and do not detract from its monotheistic government of the world. With such a high monotheism, it is not surprising that Mohism championed a concept called "universal love" (jian'ai, 兼愛), which taught that Heaven loves all people equally and that each person should similarly love all human beings without distinguishing between his own relatives and those of others. In Mozi's Will of Heaven (天志), he writes:
"I know Heaven loves men dearly not without reason. Heaven ordered the sun, the moon, and the stars to enlighten and guide them. Heaven ordained the four seasons, Spring, Autumn, Winter, and Summer, to regulate them. Heaven sent down snow, frost, rain, and dew to grow the five grains and flax and silk that so the people could use and enjoy them. Heaven established the hills and rivers, ravines and valleys, and arranged many things to minister to man's good or bring him evil. He appointed the dukes and lords to reward the virtuous and punish the wicked, and to gather metal and wood, birds and beasts, and to engage in cultivating the five grains and flax and silk to provide for the people's food and clothing. This has been so from antiquity to the present." Original Chinese: 「且吾所以知天之愛民之厚者有矣，曰以磨為日月星辰，以昭道之；制為四時春秋冬夏，以紀綱之；雷降雪霜雨露，以長遂五穀麻絲，使民得而財利之；列為山川谿谷，播賦百事，以臨司民之善否；為王公侯伯，使之賞賢而罰暴；賊金木鳥獸，從事乎五穀麻絲，以為民衣食之財。自古及今，未嘗不有此也。」
Mozi criticized the Confucians of his own time for not following the teachings of Confucius. By the time of the later Han Dynasty, however, under the influence of Xunzi, the Chinese concept of Heaven and Confucianism itself had become mostly naturalistic, though some Confucians argued that Heaven was where ancestors reside. Worship of Heaven in China continued with the erection of shrines, the last and greatest being the Temple of Heaven in Beijing, and the offering of prayers. The ruler of China in every Chinese dynasty would perform annual sacrificial rituals to Heaven, usually by slaughtering two healthy bulls as a sacrifice.
Main article: Heaven (Christianity)
Traditionally, Christianity has taught that Heaven is the location of the throne of God as well as the holy angels, although this is in varying degrees considered metaphorical. In traditional Christianity, it is considered a state or condition of existence (rather than a particular place somewhere in the cosmos) of the supreme fulfillment of theosis in the beatific vision of the Godhead. In most forms of Christianity, heaven is also understood as the abode for the redeemed dead in the afterlife, usually a temporary stage before the resurrection of the dead and the saints' return to the New Earth.
The resurrected Jesus is said to have ascended to heaven where he now sits at the Right Hand of God and will return to earth in the Second Coming. Various people have been said to have entered heaven while still alive, including Enoch, Elijah and Jesus himself, after his resurrection. According to Roman Catholic teaching, Mary, mother of Jesus, is also said to have been assumed into heaven and is titled the Queen of Heaven.
The Gospel of Matthew frequently uses the phrase "Kingdom of Heaven", where the other Synoptic Gospels speak of the "kingdom of God", one of the key elements of the teachings of Jesus in the New Testament.Revelation 12:7-9 speaks of a war in Heaven between Michael the Archangel and his angels against Satan and his angels, after which Satan and his angels are "thrown down to the earth".
In the 2nd century AD, Irenaeus of Lyons recorded a belief that, in accordance with John 14:2, those who in the afterlife see the Saviour are in different mansions, some dwelling in the Heavens, others in paradise and others in "the city".
While the word used in all these writings, in particular the New Testament Greek word οὐρανός (ouranos), applies primarily to the sky, it is also used metaphorically of the dwelling place of God and the blessed. Similarly, though the English word "heaven" still keeps its original physical meaning when used, for instance, in allusions to the stars as "lights shining through from Heaven", and in phrases such as heavenly body to mean an astronomical object, the Heaven or happiness that Christianity looks forward to is, according to Pope John Paul II, "neither an abstraction nor a physical place in the clouds, but a living, personal relationship with the Holy Trinity. It is our meeting with the Father which takes place in the risen Christ through the communion of the Holy Spirit."
Main article: Hindu cosmology
Attaining heaven is not the final pursuit in Hinduism as heaven itself is ephemeral and related to physical body. Only being tied by the bhoot-tatvas, heaven cannot be perfect either and is just another name for pleasurable and mundane material life. According to Hindu cosmology, above the earthly plane, are other planes: (1) Bhuva Loka, (2) Swarga Loka, meaning Good Kingdom, is the general name for heaven in Hinduism, a heavenly paradise of pleasure, where most of the Hindu Devatas (Deva) reside along with the king of Devas, Indra, and beatified mortals. Some other planes are Mahar Loka, Jana Loka, Tapa Loka and Satya Loka. Since heavenly abodes are also tied to the cycle of birth and death, any dweller of Heaven or Hell will again be recycled to a different plane and in a different form per the karma and "maya" i.e. the illusion of Samsara. This cycle is broken only by self-realization by the Jivatma. This self-realization is Moksha (Turiya, Kaivalya).
The concept of moksha is unique to Hinduism and is unparalleled. Moksha stands for liberation from the cycle of birth and death and final communion with Brahman. With moksha, a liberated soul attains the stature and oneness with Brahman or Paramatma. Different schools such as Vedanta, Mimansa, Sankhya, Nyaya, Vaisheshika, and Yoga offer subtle differences in the concept of Brahman, obvious Universe, its genesis and regular destruction, Jivatma, Nature (Prakriti) and also the right way in attaining perfect bliss or moksha.
In the Vaishnava traditions the highest Heaven is Vaikuntha, which exists above the six heavenly lokas and outside of the mahat-tattva or mundane world. It's where eternally liberated souls who have attained moksha reside in eternal sublime beauty with Lakshmi and Narayana (a manifestation of Vishnu).
In the Nasadiya Sukta, the heavens/sky Vyoman is mentioned as a place from which an overseeing entity surveys what has been created. However, the Nasadiya Sukta questions the omniscience of this overseer.
After Kalyug, there will be the heaven(created by Shiv) in Bharat, in which Lakshmi and Narayana are King and Queen.
Main article: Jannah
The Qur'an contains many references to an afterlife in Eden for those who do good deeds. Regarding the concept of Heaven (Jannah) in the Qu'ran, verse 35 of Surah Al-Ra’d says, "The parable of the Garden which the righteous are promised! Beneath it flow rivers. Perpetual is the fruits thereof and the shade therein. Such is the End of the Righteous; and the end of the unbelievers is the Fire."[Quran 13:35] Islam rejects the concept of original sin, and Muslims believe that all human beings are born pure. Children automatically go to Heaven when they die, regardless of the religion of their parents.
The concept of Heaven in Islam differs in many respects to the concept in Judaism and Christianity. Heaven is described primarily in physical terms as a place where every wish is immediately fulfilled when asked. Islamic texts describe immortal life in Heaven as happy, without negative emotions. Those who dwell in Heaven are said to wear costly apparel, partake in exquisite banquets, and recline on couches inlaid with gold or precious stones. Inhabitants will rejoice in the company of their parents, spouses, and children. In Islam if one's good deeds outweigh one's sins then one may gain entrance to Heaven. Conversely, if one's sins outweigh their good deeds they are sent to hell. The more good deeds one has performed the higher the level of Heaven one is directed to. It has been said that the lowest level of Heaven, the first one, is already over one-hundred times better than the greatest life on Earth. The highest level is the seventh Heaven. Houses are built by angels for the occupants using solid gold.
Verses which describe Heaven include: Quran 13:35, Quran 18:31, Quran 38:49–54, Quran 35:33–35, Quran 52:17–27, Quran 78:31–34.
Islamic texts refer to several levels of Heaven: Firdaus or Paradise, 'Adn (Eden), Jannatun-Na'iim (heaven of delight), Ma'wa (refuge), Darussalaam (home of peace), Daarul-Muqaamah (home of permanence), Al-Muqqamul Amin (the secure place) & Jannattul-Khuld (heaven of immortality).
According to the Ahmadiyya view, much of the imagery presented in the Qur'an regarding Heaven, but also hell, is in fact metaphorical. They propound the verse which describes, according to them how the life to come after death is very different from the life here on earth. The Quran says: "From bringing in your place others like you, and from developing you into a form which at present you know not."[Quran 56:62] According to Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, the founder of Ahmadiyya sect in Islam, the soul will give birth to another rarer entity and will resemble the life on this earth in the sense that this entity will bear a similar relationship to the soul, as the soul bears relationship with the human existence on earth. On earth, if a person leads a righteous life and submits to the will of God, his or her tastes become attuned to enjoying spiritual pleasures as opposed to carnal desires. With this, an "embyonic soul" begins to take shape. Different tastes are said to be born which a person given to carnal passions finds no enjoyment. For example, sacrifice of one's own's rights over that of other's becomes enjoyable, or that forgiveness becomes second nature. In such a state a person finds contentment and Peace at heart and at this stage, according to Ahmadiyya beliefs, it can be said that a soul within the soul has begun to take shape.
Main article: Jain cosmology
The shape of the Universe as described in Jainism is shown alongside. Unlike the current convention of using North direction as the top of map, this uses South as the top. The shape is similar to a part of human form standing upright.
The Deva Loka (heavens) are at the symbolic "chest", where all souls enjoying the positive karmic effects reside. The heavenly beings are referred to as devas (masculine form) and devis (feminine form). According to Jainism, there is not one heavenly abode, but several layers to reward appropriately the souls of varying degree of karmic merits. Similarly, beneath the "waist" are the Narka Loka (Hell). Human, animal, insect, plant and microscopic life forms reside on the middle.
The pure souls (who reached Siddha status) reside at the very south end (top) of the Universe. They are referred to in Tamil literature as தென்புலத்தார் (Kural 43).
Main article: Heaven (Judaism)
Yahwism (Iron Age Judaism)
See also: Yahweh
The term for Heavens in the Tanakh is shamayim, located above the firmament (a solid, transparent dome which covered the earth and separated it from the "waters" above). Yahweh, the God of Israel, lived in Heaven or in the "Heaven of Heavens" (the exact difference between these two, if any, is unclear) in a heavenly palace. His dwelling on earth was Solomon's Temple in Jerusalem, which was a model of the cosmos and included a section which represented Heaven.
Main article: Olam Haba
While the concept of Heaven (malkuth hashamaim מלכות השמים, the Kingdom of Heaven) is much discussed within the Christian and Islamic religions, the Jewish concept of the afterlife, sometimes known as olam haba, the World-to-come, is not discussed so often. The Torah has little to say on the subject of survival after death, but by the time of the rabbis two ideas had made inroads among the Jews: one, which is probably derived from Greek thought, is that of the immortal soul which returns to its creator after death; the other, which is thought to be of Persian origin, is that of resurrection of the dead.
Jewish writings[which?] refer to a "new earth" as the abode of mankind following the resurrection of the dead. Originally, the two ideas of immortality and resurrection were different but in rabbinic thought they are combined: the soul departs from the body at death but is returned to it at the resurrection. This idea is linked to another rabbinic teaching, that men's good and bad actions are rewarded and punished not in this life but after death, whether immediately or at the subsequent resurrection. Around 1 CE, the Pharisees are said to have maintained belief in resurrection but the Sadducees are said to have denied it (Matt. 22:23).
The Mishnah has many sayings about the World to Come, for example, "Rabbi Yaakov said: This world is like a lobby before the World to Come; prepare yourself in the lobby so that you may enter the banquet hall."
Judaism holds that the righteous of all nations have a share in the World-to-come.
According to Nicholas de Lange, Judaism offers no clear teaching about the destiny which lies in wait for the individual after death and its attitude to life after death has been expressed as follows: "For the future is inscrutable, and the accepted sources of knowledge, whether experience, or reason, or revelation, offer no clear guidance about what is to come. The only certainty is that each man must die - beyond that we can only guess."
According to Tracey R. Rich of the website "Judaism 101", Judaism, unlike other world-religions, is not focused on the quest of getting into Heaven but on life and how to live it.
Kabbalah Jewish mysticism
In order from lowest to highest, the seven Heavens, Shamayim (שָׁמַיִם), according to the Talmud, are listed alongside the angels who govern them:
- Vilon (וִילוֹן) or Araphel (עֲרָפֶל) The first Heaven, governed by ArchangelGabriel, is the closest of heavenly realms to the Earth; it is also considered the abode of Adam and Eve.
- Raqia (רָקִיעַ): The second Heaven is dually controlled by Zachariel and Raphael. It was in this Heaven that Moses, during his visit to Paradise, encountered the angel Nuriel who stood "300 parasangs high, with a retinue of 50 myriads of angels all fashioned out of water and fire". Also, Raqia is considered the realm where the fallen angels are imprisoned and the planets fastened.
- Shehaqim (שְׁחָקִים, Shechaqim): The third Heaven, under the leadership of Anahel, serves as the home of the Garden of Eden and the Tree of Life; it is also the realm where manna, the holy food of angels, is produced. The Second Book of Enoch, meanwhile, states that both Paradise and Hell are accommodated in Shehaqim with Hell being located simply "on the northern side".
- Maon (מִעוּן): The fourth Heaven is ruled by the Archangel Michael, and according to Talmud Hagiga 12, it contains the heavenly Jerusalem, the Temple, and the Altar.
- Makon (מִכּוּן, Makhon): The fifth Heaven is under the administration of Samael. It is also where the Ishim and the Song-Uttering Choirs reside.
- Zebul (זִבּוּל): The sixth Heaven falls under the jurisdiction of Sachiel.
- Araboth (עֲרֵבוּת, Aravoth): The seventh Heaven, under the leadership of Cassiel, is the holiest of the seven Heavens because it houses the Throne of Glory attended by the Seven Archangels and serves as the realm in which God dwells; underneath the throne itself lies the abode of all unborn human souls. It is also considered the home of the Seraphim, the Cherubim, and the Hayyoth.
Main article: Aztec mythology
The Nahua people such as the Aztecs, Chichimecs and the Toltecs believed that the heavens were constructed and separated into 13 levels. Each level had from one to many Lords living in and ruling these heavens. Most important of these heavens was Omeyocan (Place of Two). The Thirteen Heavens were ruled by Ometeotl, the dual Lord, creator of the Dual-Genesis who, as male, takes the name Ometecuhtli (Two Lord), and as female is named Omecihuatl (Two Lady).
Main article: Polynesian mythology
In the creation myths of Polynesian mythology are found various concepts of the heavens and the underworld. These differ from one island to another. What they share is the view of the universe as an egg or coconut that is divided between the world of humans (earth), the upper world of heavenly gods, and the underworld. Each of these is subdivided in a manner reminiscent of Dante's Divine Comedy, but the number of divisions and their names differs from one Polynesian culture to another.
In Māori mythology, the heavens are divided into a number of realms. Different tribes number the heaven differently, with as few as two and as many as fourteen levels. One of the more common versions divides heaven thus:
- Kiko-rangi, presided over by the gods Toumau
- Waka-maru, the heaven of sunshine and rain
- Nga-roto, the heaven of lakes where the god Maru rules
- Hauora, where the spirits of newborn children originate
- Nga-Tauira, home of the servant gods
- Nga-atua, which is ruled over by the hero Tawhaki
- Autoia, where human souls are created
- Aukumea, where spirits live
- Wairua, where spirit gods live while waiting on those in
- Naherangi or Tuwarea, where the great gods live presided over by Rehua
The Māori believe these heavens are supported by pillars. Other Polynesian peoples see them being supported by gods (as in Hawaii). In one Tahitian legend, heaven is supported by an octopus.
The Polynesian conception of the universe and its division is nicely illustrated by a famous drawing made by a Tuomotuan chief in 1869. Here, the nine heavens are further divided into left and right, and each stage is associated with a stage in the evolution of the earth that is portrayed below. The lowest division represents a period when the heavens hung low over the earth, which was inhabited by animals that were not known to the islanders. In the third division is shown the first murder, the first burials, and the first canoes, built by Rata. In the fourth division, the first coconut tree and other significant plants are born.
As per Sikh thought, Heaven and Hell are not places for living hereafter, they are part of spiritual topography of man and do not exist otherwise. They refer to good and evil stages of life respectively and can be lived now and here during our earthly existence. For example, Bhagat Kabir rejects the otherworldly Heaven in Guru Granth Sahib and says that one can experience Heaven on this Earth by doing company of holy people.
He claims to know the Lord, who is beyond measure and beyond thought; By mere words, he plans to enter heaven. I do not know where heaven is. Everyone claims that he plans to go there. By mere talk, the mind is not appeased. The mind is only appeased, when egotism is conquered. As long as the mind is filled with the desire for heaven, He does not dwell at the Lord's Feet. Says Kabeer, unto whom should I tell this? The Company of the Holy is heaven.
— Bhagat Kabir, Guru Granth Sahib 325, 
Main article: Theosophy
It is believed in Theosophy of Helena Blavatsky that each religion (including Theosophy) has its own individual heaven in various regions of the upper astral plane that fits the description of that heaven that is given in each religion, which a soul that has been good in their previous life on Earth will go to. The area of the upper astral plane of Earth in the upper atmosphere where the various heavens are located is called Summerland (Theosophists believe Hell is located in the lower astral plane of Earth which extends downward from the surface of the earth down to its center). However, Theosophists believe that the soul is recalled back to Earth after an average of about 1400 years by the Lords of Karma to incarnate again. The final heaven that souls go to billions of years in the future after they finish their cycle of incarnations is called Devachan.
Criticism of the belief in Heaven
AnarchistEmma Goldman expressed this view when she wrote, "Consciously or unconsciously, most theists see in gods and devils, heaven and hell; reward and punishment, a whip to lash the people into obedience, meekness and contentment."
Many people consider George Orwell's use of Sugarcandy Mountain in his novel Animal Farm to be a literary expression of this view. In the book, the animals were told that after their miserable lives were over they would go to a place in which "it was Sunday seven days a week, clover was in season all the year round, and lump sugar and linseed cake grew on the hedges".
Some have argued that a belief in a reward after death is poor motivation for moral behavior while alive.Sam Harris wrote, "It is rather more noble to help people purely out of concern for their suffering than it is to help them because you think the Creator of the Universe wants you to do it, or will reward you for doing it, or will punish you for not doing it. The problem with this linkage between religion and morality is that it gives people bad reasons to help other human beings when good reasons are available."
In Inside the Neolithic Mind, Lewis-Williams and Pearce argue that a tiered structure of Heaven, along with similarly structured circles of Hell, is neurally perceived by members of many cultures around the world and through history. The reports are so similar across time and space that Lewis-Williams and Pearce argue for a neuroscientific explanation, accepting the percepts as real neural activations and subjective percepts during particular altered states of consciousness.
Many people who come close to death and have near death experiences report meeting relatives or entering "the Light" in an otherworldly dimension, which share similarities with the religious concept of heaven. Even though there are also reports of distressing experiences and negative life-reviews, which share some similarities with the concept of Hell, the positive experiences of meeting or entering "the Light" is reported as an immensely intense feeling state of love, peace and joy beyond human comprehension. Together with this intensely positive-feeling state, people who have near death experiences also report that consciousness or a heightened state of awareness seems as if it is at the heart of experiencing a taste of "heaven".
Representations in arts
- The Green Pastures, shows it as a wide open cotton field.
- Here Comes Mr. Jordan, shows it as an airfield and Mr. Jordan is possibly God in disguise.
- A Guy Named Joe, shows it as a military air base.
- The Horn Blows at Midnight, shows it as a dream.
- A Matter of Life and Death, shows it in black and white.
- Heaven Only Knows, shows it as an office.
- Carousel, shows it where Billy lives.
- The Story of Mankind, shows it as an courtroom.
- Bedazzled, shows heaven at the end.
- Made in Heaven, a 1987 film concerning two souls who cross paths in heaven and then attempt to reconnect once they are reborn on Earth.
- All Dogs Go to Heaven, a 1989 Metro Goldwyn Mayer film
- Field of Dreams, a 1989 film in which Heaven is symbolized by a baseball field. Several players ask Ray if they are in heaven, but he assures them that they are just in Iowa. At the end, Ray asks his father if there is a heaven, to which his father replies that it is the place where dreams come true.
- What Dreams May Come, a 1998 movie that won an Academy Award for its depiction of Heaven and Hell as the subjective creations of the individual, was an essentially mystical interpretation of heaven, hell and reincarnation. It was based on the eponymous novel by Richard Matheson.
- Little Nicky, also shows Heaven when Nicky visits his mother who is an angel.
- The Twilight Zone had a few episodes that showed Heaven which were:
- In the South Park episodes "Do the Handicapped Go to Hell?" and "Probably", it is revealed that Mormons go to heaven while everyone else lives in hell. Due to a war between heaven and hell in "Best Friends Forever", God allows more people in.
- In the American Dad! episode "The Most Adequate Christmas Ever", heaven is featured. Anyone who has done good in their life is flown from Limbo to the Gates of Heaven by a large griffin (which might be Ziz). There was a reference that Jim Henson tried to sneak into heaven, only for him and Kermit the Frog to end up in a flat rectangle prison (similar to General Zod in Superman II); as Jim Henson begs for them to be released Kermit states "you will bow down before me son of God".
- In The Simpsons episode "The Father, the Son, and the Holy Guest Star" when Bart and Homer became Catholic, Marge imagines herself in Heaven, which is split into two parts. First there is Catholic Heaven, full of Irish, Italian, and Mexican people where everyone is partying, including Bart, Homer and Jesus. Then there is Protestant Heaven, where people play croquet or tennis.
- In the Black Mirror episode "San Junipero", the consciousnesses of the dead can be uploaded into a virtual reality system, where they can live in a beautiful resort city (called "San Junipero") as their younger selves forever. Living people can visit San Junipero for trial periods but are limited to five hours a week, until they decide to undergo euthanasia and be permanently uploaded.
- Kane Brown released his Fourth Single Heaven, which was released on October 5, 2017 from his Self-Titled Album called Kane Brown Deluxe Edition.
- ^The Anglo-Saxons knew the concept of Paradise, which they expressed with words such as neorxnawang.
- ^Barnhart (1995:357).
- ^ abcd
Show MoreChristianity v. Jainism I have chosen Christianity and Jainism, two of the major world religions as the two religions I would like to compare. I chose these two religions because of my familiarity with Christianity and my interest in wanting to learn more about Jainism. I started my research by wanting to know about their similarities but ended up learning a lot more about their differences. I will begin by giving a brief summary on each religion and then I will list and explain three differences in their views on perfection, beliefs in Gods, and lastly their beliefs about non-violence. Lastly, I will inform the reader how these differences affect the people within the religion. First, let’s take a look at Christianity. It is a…show more content…
Karma is actual matter that we accumulate as we live our lives. This karma can only be cleared away in the human form, which is the highest stage of life. To perfect as soon as possible, Jains will try to not surround themselves with any negative influences. The three basic principles Jains adopt to avoid the accumulation of Karma is non-violence (ahimsa), non-attachment (aparigraha), and non-absolutism (anekantwad) (Living 124). The second difference is their beliefs in gods. Christianity believes that there is a higher power. There is a Holy Trinity, God the Father, His Son, and The Holy Spirit. Jesus Christ, the Son, was born of the Holy Spirit and the Virgin Mary and sent to us from God for our salvation. In Jainism, there is belief that there are Gods, but it is believed that anybody can become one. The Jains do not believe in the supernatural immortals (JAINISM). Jainism is a religion of purely human origin. It is propagated by self effort and have been liberated from the bonds of worldly existence, and the cycles of all future life and death (JAINISM). Lastly, are their views on non-violence. While both believe strongly in non-violence, Jains are a little more extreme in their views. Christians look at non-violence as taking innocent human lives and they have the belief that God provided animals as a source of food. Jains believe that life should not be taken in any form. The doctrine of ahisma, one of the three principles for